It belongs to the work my Africa


At the beginning of the XX century, the European artists direct their attention to original cultures: the exotic thing, the black thing, the infantile thing, permean their works with their expressive resources, creating implication axes that expand or they contract in the art of the century. Artists like Vlaminck, Matisse, Derain or Picasso would assist to the African art and they would receive the influence of their precise design, of their conceptual synthesis and their formal economy in the process of symbiosis of the foundations that contributed and validated the emergence of the artistic vanguards of the XX century. The presence of the different African black cultures in the European continent in this period is hardly anecdotic, it is bigger the relationship with the cultures with Arab influence of África of the North. The European relationship with the black África is constituted fundamentally by art collections, for the testimonies of trips, at the time that the presence of African sub-Saharan in the Old Continent it is insignificant.

In the environment of the American continent the situation is different: at the beginning of the XX century, America still conserves its characteristics of the colonization, in spite of the fact that the liberation process has culminated and the republics are stabilized, these they continue the evolution cultural turns to Europe, with the logical retard of the media between both continents. An attitude mediatizada that influences in the process of evolution of the culture and the own identity, starting from the dominant cultures.

To beginnings of the XX century in Cuba, the influence of writers and brilliant intellectuals, as José Jacinto Milanés, Nicolás Heredia, Julián of the Casals; as well as of men of the intellectual and military vigor like Loynaz, Carlos M. of Grasses, Ignacio Agramonte, Calixto García, Maximum Gómez, José Martí; it has laid the foundation concepts of identity and national culture. As for the plastic arts, the Academy of fine arts of San Alejandro in Havana valorizes the academic painting, of court realist, and at the same time it endows from technical knowledge to the generations of artists that will contribute to the development of the plastic arts of this century in Cuba, questioning the imparted academicism and assisting to the European vanguards: and that they would constitute the creative nucleus of the literature and the Cuban art. Coinciding with the end of the War of Independence and the beginning of the republican period, in the decade of the years ' 20 several intellectuals unite in the defense of a national identity. Among these intellectuals of vanguard, rooted in the Grupo Minorista, Emilio Roig of Leuchsenring were, Fernando Ortiz, Rubén Martínez Villena, I Move away Carpentier, José Manuel Acosta, José Zacarías Tallet, Regino Pedroso, Nicolás Guillén, Amadeo Roldán, Jorge Mañach and others. The Grupo Minorista is founded in 1927 The Magazine of Advance that would have a decisive importance in the development of the plastic arts in Cuba and it propitiates the knowledge of Nicolás Guillén's poetry and the force of Wifredo Lam's visual universe. The Magazine of Advance promoted the first exhibition of modern art of Cuba and it contributed to the diffusion of literary and artistic works.

In this identification process and rescue of the features of our cultural identity, the valuation of the contribution of the resistance cultures or marginal, it is fundamental. The relating one Afro-Cuban (3) it will be in the creative sources of any Cuban artist: the cult of the Orichas (yoruba) it contributes the influence of the consecration wardrobe, the belts, the crowns and the cloths. The wardrobes are elaborations of high seam to the European usage of the XVII century and they are only used during saint's coronation or initiation of the iyawó; the cloths are good to cover the foundation of the sacred one and he/she only covers with them to a person while the same one is possessed by the oricha, since in this case the oricha has abandoned its vessel to settle in the devote one. The altars, as well as the bills in the elaboration of necklaces and cloths with snails are another Afro-Cuban artistic manifestation.

We also find a great variety in the ritual craft; from the tools of Changó (Obákoso and Oggoddó ma kulenkue) until the feather dusters of horse tail. In Palo Monte (Bantu) especially in the Brillumba that prevails in Matanzas, we also find an enormous source of visual inspiration, from the talismen of Mayombe until the vititi mensu (magic mirror). The graph of the signatures of ritual invocation characteristic of Stick Mounts and the religiosity Abakuá (carabalí) appears in the work of numerous Cuban artists and matanceros. In the work of art , explicit references can exist, abstractions, subtractions or deconstrucciones of a poetic one of the Afro-Cuban plastic codes that it allows the evident or tangential recognition, that recognition that distinguishes the cadence in the music, the rhythm of the speech in the literature or the gestualidad captured by the Cuban School of Ballet, those references that syntonize a comprehensive identity.

(3) I subscribe the reasoning applied to the Cuban religiosity by Jesús Guanche and Gertudis Campo in their work titled Craft and popular religiosity in the Cuban santería: the sun, the arch and the arrow, the pottery of use ritual", as for precision and utility of the term transculturación regarding the Afro-Cuban term. Only here I should use Afro-Cuban because he/she requires to be distinguished a sector of cultural contribution differentiating it regarding others of Spanish origin, Englishman, Chinese, etc.

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